Main Flour Components:
- Germ (embryo): is the main part of the sprouting kernel seed that encompasses lots of fiber, trace minerals and B-complex vitamins. Sometimes this is separated and sold separately as a nutrient.
- Bran: is the exterior part of the kernel containing small amounts of major B-vitamins, fiber and minerals.
- Endosperm: encompasses about 83% of the wheat kernel. The largest amount of protein, iron, carbohydrates and major B-vitamins are found in the endosperm.
Gluten: is the main protein in the endosperm and is mostly found in cereal grains such as wheat and barley. All types of wheat grains contain gluten. When cooking, gluten provides texture and elasticity to baked foods. It helps to contain the gases that enable mixtures to rise as they bake. Gluten is also used as a thickener when making broths and soups. Other types of grains that contain gluten include rye, semolina, faro, durum wheat, triticale, etc.
Note: Gluten can also act as a harmful ingredient to people who have celiac disease. If a carrier of celiac disease consumes gluten, they begin to experience difficulties with the small intestine as it will not absorb nutrients it needs which eventually causes many problems with the skin, digestion system, strength, etc. Read more on all types of Flour here