Whole Wheat (Grain) Flour: Is the whole wheat kernel (wheat berry) pulverized into flour. The whole wheat kernel as mentioned above is composed of the germ, bran and endosperm. The term “whole” refers to the fact that 100% of the wheat grain is used to make the flour. It offers more of robust and bitter flavored flour. Because all parts of the grain is used, whole wheat flour has more nutrients as well as more, protein, vitamins and minerals than white (All-purpose) flour. However, because of the higher oil content, the shelf life is shorter than white flour. It also creates a heavier and denser baked good than white flour. When baking with whole wheat flour it is important to note that this flour absorbs more water than with white flour which is due to the inclusion of bran and germ. You also must factor in additional kneading time as this allows for the development of gluten which helps with adequate dough rising.
Because of these drawbacks of working and baking with Whole Wheat Flour, it generally is not the main or only flour ingredient in most baked items. White (All-Purpose) Flour or White Whole Wheat Flour is usually combined to combat the “heaviness” that affects the rising process. Read more on all types of Flour here